Role Models in STEM. Research on Improving Education and Learning Outcomes: Women in math and science and racial/ethnic minority students in academics more generally are severely underrepresented. Among the many prominent explanations for this gender and race gap is the theory of stereotype threat (Steele & Aronson, 1995), which posits that there is a general “threat in the air” whenever a negatively stereotyped individual enters a situation where a negative, group-relevant stereotype might apply. It is argued that this threat is what undermines the performance and academic motivation of these individuals (Steele, 1997). Because of this, the STEPP Lab has focused on developing and refining an intervention known as the role model effect (Marx & Roman, 2002).